Acid and Base Concentrations

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Properties of various acids and bases

The data in the following table (except MW) is approximate and should only be used as an estimate. Concentrations change upon exposure to air.

Reagent Formula Molecular Weight (g/mol) Specific gravity Normality of conc. reagent Weight % V (mL)*
Acetic acid (glacial) CH3CO2H 60.05 1.05 17.45 99.8 57.3
Ammonium hydroxide NH4OH 35.05 0.90 14.53 56.6
Ethylene diamine C2H4(NH2)2 60.10 0.899 15.0 100 66.7
Formic acid HCO2H 46.03 1.20 23.6 90.5 42.5
Hydrazine N2H4 32.05 1.01 30.0 95 33.3
Hydriodic acid HI 127.91 1.70 7.6 57 132
Hydrobromic acid HBr 80.92 1.49 8.84 48 113
Hydrochloric acid HCl 36.46 1.19 12.4 38.0 82.5
Hydrofluoric acid HF 20.0 1.18 28.9 49.0 34.5
Nitric acid HNO3 63.01 1.42 15.9 70.4 63
Perchloric acid HClO4 100.47 1.67 11.7 70.5 85.5
Phosphoric acid H3PO4 97.10 1.70 14.8 85.5 67.5
Pyridine C5H5N 79.10 0.982 12.4 100 80.6
Sulfuric acid H2SO4 98.08 1.84 18.0 96 55.8
Triethanolamine C6H15NO3 149.19 1.124 7.53 100 132.7

* V (mL) = volume in milliliters needed to prepare 1 L of 1 molar solution (1 M)

Approximate pH for different concentrations of various substances

Reagent 1 N 0.1 N 0.01 N 0.001 N
Acetic acid (glacial) 2.4 2.9 3.4 3.9
Ammonia 11.8 11.3 10.8 10.3
Benzoic acid 3.1
Citric acid 2.1 2.6
Hydrochloric acid 0.10 1.07 2.02 3.01
Hydrogen cyanide 5.1
Potassium hydroxide 14.0 13.0 12.0 11.0
Sodium bicarbonate 8.4
Sodium carbonate 11.5 11.0
Sodium hydroxide 14.05 13.07 12.12 11.13
Sulfuric acid 0.3 1.2 2.1

Equivalences % / M / N and preparation

The following table lists equivalences between molarities, normalities and percent solutions along with volume of desired substance needed to make 1 L of desired solutions.

HCl 0.01 M 0.1 M 1 M 2 M 3 M 5 M 6 M 10 M 12.4 M
Normality 0.01 N 0.1 N 1 N 2 N 3 N 5 N 6 N 10 N 12.4 N
% equivalent 0.03% 0.3% 3% 6% 9% 15% 18% 31% 38%
V of conc reagent to make 1 L 0.81 mL 8.1 mL 81 mL 161 mL 242 mL 403 mL 484 mL 806 mL 1000 mL
H2SO4 0.01 M 0.1 M 1 M 2 M 3 M 5 M 6 M 9 M 10 M 12 M 15 M 18 M
Normality 0.02 N 0.2 N 2 N 4 N 6 N 10 N 12 N 18 N 20 N 24 N 30 N 36 N
% equivalent 0.05% 0.54% 5.4% 11% 16% 27% 33% 49% 54% 65% 82% 98%
V of conc reagent to make 1 L 0.56 mL 5.6 mL 56 mL 111 mL 167 mL 278 mL 333 mL 500 mL 556 mL 667 mL 833 mL 1000 mL
NaOH 0.01 M 0.1 M 1 M 2 M 5 M 10 M 15 M 20 M 25 M 27 M
Normality 0.01 N 0.1 N 1 N 2 N 5 N 10 N 15 N 20 N 25 N 27 N
% equivalent 0.04% 0.4% 4% 8% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 108%
weight needed to make 1 L 0.40 g 4.0 g 40 g 80 g 200 g 400 g 600 g 800 g 1000 g 1080 g
KOH 0.01 M 0.1 M 1 M 2 M 5 M 10 M 15 M 20 M 21 M
Normality 0.01 N 0.1 N 1 N 2 N 5 N 10 N 15 N 20 N 21 N
% equivalent 0.06% 0.56% 5.6% 11% 28% 56% 84% 112% 118%
weight needed to make 1 L 0.56 g 5.61 g 56.1 g 112 g 280 g 561 g 841 g 1120 g 1178 g
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